Legacy networks are buckling under the stress of new, bandwidth-hungry services, while real estate and power costs are higher than ever. To remain profitable, every operator must now do more with less.It is clear that network modernization is an imperative for operators to weather this technological and financial “perfect storm”. Applying in-depth consultancy, Ciena consultants ensure that modernization of legacy infrastructure is primed and ready for the high-bandwidth future and, more importantly, will remain upgradable as part of a continual process that retains and reinforces sound business value.
The deployment of small cell base stations has been challenged by a number of constraints, of which the cost of backhaul is among the most important. Without cost effective backhaul, it is too expensive to deploy small cells to address the growing demand for mobile data traffic which is being fueled by advances in mobile computing devices. In fact, the entire heterogeneous network architecture concept of multi-technology large and small cells working in unison to meet the throughput and performance metrics demanded by mobile subscribers will not be realized if the backhaul puzzle is not solved.
Small Cell base stations (SCBS) are widely recognized as a solution to the insatiable demand for mobile data traffic which has been about doubling every year. Mobile traffic is expected to reach 10.8 exabytes per month in 2016 from 0.6 exabytes per month in 20111. The macro-cellular architecture where base station antennas are mounted on building rooftops has served the purpose of providing mobile voice service very well.
This 60 page guide Understanding LTE, provides an essential reference for engineers wanting to gain a better understanding of LTE. The guide contains a comprehensive overview of LTE technology and the testing issues it presents to both the engineer and the network operator. Contents cover LTE/SAE introduction, LTE Physical Layer Structure, Self Optimising Networks, Impact on users of the technology, Testing challenges and MIMO Testing plus much more.
Networks are increasing in their complexity, both in terms of cascaded filtering (e.g., via ROADMs in mesh networks) and multiple-bit/symbol modulation formats. For instance, intra-channel noise will increasingly be spectrally carved by filters, the signal bandwidths will frequently be as large as the effective channels widths, and different data rates will be used more and more on a given network. All these factors will affect wavelengths differently, as some wavelengths might have passed through a different number of ROADMs, data rates in a single fiber might vary from one wavelength to the next, etc. Nevertheless, OSNR remains a critical network performance parameter, which requires OSNR measurements optimized on a per-channel basis, like the WDM-aware technique. Purely polarization-based OSNR measurement techniques (e.g., polarization nulling) can perform well when networks and noise sources remain simple, but as demonstrated herein, the robustness and performance of WDM-aware measurement renders it well suited for advanced network architectures and modulation formats.
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A comprehensive guide to network and service performance testing—which is comprised of six informative modules, specifically designed to assist you with Carrier Ethernet service testing.
Chap. 1: Carrier Ethernet Basics - an in-depth look at Carrier Ethernet, presents the network services and applications, and provides an overview of the key Carrier-Ethernet technologies.
Chap. 2: Carrier Ethernet Testing Technologies and Methodologies - the different testing standards including the new ITU-T Y.1564, as well as the key elements of service lifecycle management and Synchronization.
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