With OTN transitioning from submarine and core networks into metro and access networks, operators need to manage fault-finding across a broader network. Recently, ITU-T added OTN functions to the G.709 standard, such as multistage multiplexing, ODUflex, ODU0 and GMP protocol combined with TCM, giving operators the required visibility.

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Distributed antenna systems are proliferating as carriers scramble to enhance quality-of-service in densely packed venues such as sports stadiums, shopping malls, and convention centers. In such environments, cell-tower coverage simply cannot handle the dense traffic of tens of thousands of voice calls and the image/video transfers endemic to smartphones.

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