SonyEricsson and Option are the suppliers

The mobile data-communication market is beginning to
come to terms with the fact that GSM-based GPRS/HSCSD services will have to be integrated with WLAN radio-network technology to achieve the best possible customer-friendly solutions. To this end, a growing number mobile operators are offering combination rates that enable customers to choose the
best possible access technology available depending on their current situation. In cooperation with the WeRoam roaming platform, these providers are already able to offer their customers access to more than 10.000 Wi-Fi hotspots worldwide.

To make sure that users are actually able to take advantage of this flexibility and the time benefits that this brings, leading manufactures of PC cards such as Sony Ericsson or Option have developed convenient combo cards that support both GSM/GPRS/HSCSD and WLAN. These solutions are
characterized by their user-friendliness which allows the integrated SIM card to be used for accessing GSM-based services and for WLAN authentication as well. All users have to do is type in their personal PIN number and in seconds they will be able to enjoy Internet access using Wi-Fi hotspots.

This authentication method is just as fast, secure and convenient as using a mobile phone. As a pioneer in WLAN roaming, WeRoam is steadfast in its use of the advanced SIM authentication system and is able to offer customer's of
approved providers a completely new feeling in terms of mobility and convenience.

Working together with leading European mobile-phone companies, WeRoam has certified combo PC cards and is recommending the following cards to its customers: the Sony Ericsson "GPRS / Wireless LAN PC Card GC79" and the
Option "GlobeTrotter COMBO GPRS / WLAN PC Card". Users of the WeRoam service will usually get these PC cards from their mobile-phone provider - together with a SIM card, which is activated to allow worldwide access to the WeRoam network. Billing is pooled together on the mobile phone invoice and is taken care of by the user's own mobile phone company.

Combo cards that also support UMTS are already being tested. Here, too, the aim is to create a card that provides an integrative solution that is customer friendly and that allows choice between UMTS, GPRS and WLAN depending on the situation. To this end, the advantages of WeRoam´s
SIM-based authentication solution will be strengthened still further.

External Links

WeRoam
Option

Alcatel  today announced  the  signature  of  a  contract  with SMARTS, a leading regional mobile  operator  in  Russia,  for the deployment of an EDGE (Enhanced Data rate  for GSM Evolution) network throughout the city of Samara, a city with over one million inhabitants in the Russian Federation

Under  the terms of the contract, Alcatel will EDGE-enable the Evolium 900 and  1800  MHz  base  stations  already installed in the operator's network using  the multi-standard  GSM/EDGE/WCDMA capability of its industry leading
Evolium  solution. The  EDGE technology, embedded in the Alcatel Evolium radio  access solution and already installed in the SMARTS network, will be deployed  thanks to a simple software activation. Alcatel will also add new base  stations to the operator's network, guaranteeing full coverage of the
whole  territory  where  the  SMARTS  group  of  companies  provide  mobile services, and providing an optimal quality of services.

This  project will enable SMARTS to deliver, to its customers in Samara and the  Povolzhie region,  new broadband mobile applications and services such as  video  streaming, MMS, high-speed access to the Internet and electronic messaging service.

The  Alcatel  solution  will be delivered in several phases, with the first phase  scheduled  for  completion by the third quarter of 2004 and the last phase  by  end  of  first  quarter  2005.   The  commercial service will be operational by the fourth quarter 2004.

Gennady Kirushin, general director of SMARTS, commented: "We have partnered with  Alcatel  for  several  years already developing GSM infrastructure in Povolzhie  region. This  contract indicates a new step in our cooperation. The  decision  we  made in favor of Alcatel's Evolium ? EDGE-ready solution
was  the  right one allowing us to offer our customers the latest broadband services with minimum investments."

Marc  Rouanne,  chief  operating  officer  of  Alcatel's mobile activities, added:  "This  is  our  second  project  in  Russia for the deployment of a commercial  EDGE  network. It   demonstrates  the  growing  demand  for new broadband  user-centric  services in the fast-developing Russian market. We are glad to partner with SMARTS on the deployment of a leading EDGE network in Russia."

External Links

Smarts
Alcatel

Following the abduction and murder of his daughter Lucie Blackman in July 2000, SendMyTxt has worked with Tim Blackman to build the SafetyText application, a unique delayed text messaging service designed to protect anyone, anywhere in the world with GSM network coverage.

SafetyText is a breakthrough service, providing peace of mind to anyone who feels vulnerable in a given situation.  It works by a one off registration online and then the mobile phone owner has total control of a powerful application. They send full details of where they are going and with whom via a text. Once the user arrives safely home (or their destination), they then 'cancel' the text message, and no one ever receives it.

However, if something does happen to the user, and they are therefore unable to cancel their message, it is sent to the user's chosen Buddy who is alerted in the time span specified by the user. The information provided can include who the user was meeting and where they were going. It could also contain details such as car registration numbers and descriptions, which is helpful if someone is getting a lift from a stranger or travelling alone in a taxi.

Tony Coyne, Director of SendMyTxt, explains: "Traditionally SMS is an instant response communication tool; this is why we have developed a brand new way of utilising text messaging in a timed environment that can be used on all mobile devices. Delayed text messaging has formed the backbone of the SafetyText service. This technology does not discriminate against age, colour or creed and is secure enough not to dictate or judge the user keeping each message as unique and individual as the person who sends it."

Tim Blackman, Lucie's father, adds: "In the aftermath of Lucie's death, I have become very much more aware of how often terrible things happen to children and adults alike and felt I wanted to do something - for Lucie - which would really make a difference. Lucie has inspired SafetyText, which is for your protection and backup. As I have unfortunately discovered, you never know what tomorrow will bring."

External Links

SendmyTxt

Mobile marketing software underpins key marketing channel

Enpocket, the leading mobile marketing solutions provider, has licensed its mobile marketing software, the Enpocket Engine, to Vodafone UK to deliver marketing and CRM communications direct to the mobile phones of its customers.

Vodafone UK is currently using the Enpocket Engine, the world's most widely used mobile marketing software for SMS, MMS and WAP, to inform and educate customers of its range of products and services.

The Enpocket Engine has been fully integrated with existing enterprise systems to provide one user interface for in-house mobile CRM.

Vodafone UK selected the Enpocket Engine, after the competitive review, for its:

- Analytics and profiling capabilities - Acting on detailed reports of customer behaviour, Vodafone UK can set rules and triggers to get the right message to the right customer

- Scalability  - Enpocket Engine handles millions of messages daily, giving Vodafone UK confidence for reliable delivery during peak periods

- Flexibility - With the ability to handle SMS, MMS and WAP, the Enpocket Engine is a future proof application

- Speed of delivery - The full system was rapidly implemented.  The user-friendly web interface and wizards system means Vodafone can rapidly design and deliver tailored communications for core services

Enpocket now provides the preferred technology and solutions to many of the world's leading operators.  As well as the award winning mobile marketing work it has done to boost Orange's mobile Internet revenues, Enpocket also works with companies such as T-Mobile, 02, Vodafone Japan and Elisa (Radiolinja) amongst others.

"Operators and brands that want to provide high-impact mobile CRM to their customer base need feature-rich software that is capable of detailed segmentation and profiling.  Winning the Vodafone UK account after a comprehensive competitive review is a resounding confirmation of the strength of the Enpocket Engine," said Jonathon Linner, CEO, Enpocket.

External Links

Enpocket

SSEYO miniMIXA on Windows Mobile based Smartphone marks start of exciting new era for mobile music making

The SSEYO miniMIXA audio application for Microsoft Windows Mobile-based devices will make its world debut this weekend as it plays a Futuresonic Sound System dance set at FutureDJ, part of the ISEA2004 arts festival, featuring Drew Hemment (Manchester), Teemu Metsälä (Manchester/Helsinki), and fuchs-eckermann (Vienna/Manchester).

Drew Hemment, Director of the Futuresonic Festival, will use the application on a Windows Mobile-based Smartphone to create stunning on-the-fly mixes for a crowd of devoted music lovers from all over the world. The revolutionary SSEYO miniMIXA, powered by intent from Tao Group,will soon be available on Microsoft Windows Mobile-based Smartphones and
Pocket PCs.

Incredibly powerful yet easy-to-use, SSEYO miniMIXA is the feature-packed, multi-channel audio mixer and recording studio application for the Microsoft Windows Mobile platform. Featuring a wide range of per-channel sound effects, visualisers and supporting a number of DJ-like mixing
techniques, it provides an exhilarating and enjoyable mobile music making experience for all. An intuitive interface makes it simple for a user to create mixes from a collection of included beats, basses, chords, leads and sounds and then apply per-track sound effects - resulting in an almost infinite number of different possible and exciting combinations. Music and
mixes created by users can be saved and played for fun, sent to friends by MMS or stored on the phone as a unique ringtone.

SSEYO miniMIXA supports content in a range of standard audio and MIDI formats, as well as the new innovative SKM format that allows use of modular synthesis and the Koan generative music engine. Additional themed content packs, SSEYO MIXApaks, will be available for purchase at the time SSEYO miniMIXA is available pre-installed in mobile phones and PDAs.

For mobile network operators and device manufacturers SSEYO miniMIXA is a very cool music application that gives customers the means to personalise their phone experience and have fun creating content they may wish to share with others. The availability of additional content packs keeps SSEYO miniMIXA fresh and allows the operators to generate additional revenue streams and grow retail channel models.

For musicians, songwriters and the creative community SSEYO miniMIXA can both open doors to new audiences and provide a new creative dimension to DJ'ing, mixing and composition. Tao Group will soon announce audio partners for the first wave of SSEYO miniMIXA content packs and welcomes the interest of new artists and music owners who would like to be involved in
this ground-breaking opportunity. SSEYO MIXApaks can include custom background imagery that displays each time a mix is created from the pack, so providing strong visual branding opportunities for content partners.

As a dedicated 'out-of-the-box' solution for Windows Mobile-based devices, SSEYO miniMIXA can be deployed immediately.

Tim Cole, co-founder of SSEYO and now Head of Audio at Tao Group said, "Try jamming with two or more phones featuring SSEYO miniMIXA and you will understand why the mobile phone is the next electric guitar! That SSEYO can bring far-reaching and innovative music applications like this to the
mainstream mobile market to underpin significant new value chain opportunities is thanks to Tao and Tao's amazing partners."

"It is fantastic to see innovative and exciting applications like the SSEYO miniMIXA enabling users of Windows Mobile-based devices to do so much more with their Smartphones and Pocket PCs," offered Simeon Payne, European Product Marketing Manager for Microsoft's Mobile and Embedded Devices Division. "Enabling budding DJs to mix music wherever they are in the world mean that they can capture innovative ideas as soon as they pop into their head. From mixing music to managing travel arrangements; the rich
applications developed by our partners for the Windows Mobile platform offer an indication of the ways in which software is enabling people to do more with their mobile devices today."

ISEA2004 takes place between 14th and 22nd August.  During this week the Baltic Sea becomes the center of electronic music, new media research, art and design.  ISEA2004 is the 12th Symposium on Electronic Arts, organised for the first time in two capital cities and a ferry between them.

FutureDJ is an independent artist led project by Roger,  fuchs-eckerman, Roger Lyons (Major Tweaks) and Drew Hemment (Futuresonic Sound System).

External Links

Tao Group
intent Sound System

Buy that!

TradIndex.com, the financial spread betting company, today announces the launch of TradIndex Mobile, the first fully browser-based trading platform accessible via a mobile phone.

TradIndex Mobile will offer all the markets and trading functionality currently available on TradIndex.com’s website, including moveable stop losses.  Customers will be able to carry out secure spread betting on the move using intuitive screens and simple keystrokes.

TradIndex Mobile is a free service to all registered and activated TradIndex Investors. The only charge for using TradIndex Mobile will be the normal cost of accessing the internet from a mobile phone as charged by the mobile phone supplier.

"This is a logical extension of our service" said Robin Houldsworth, Managing Director of TradIndex.com. "It will enable investors to spread bet on the move allowing quick reaction to market movements and the ability to keep in touch with open positions.  Many mobile phones now have an internet browser as standard and our customers will find our service extremely user friendly."

External Links

TradIndex

A new series of bi-directional amplifiers (BDA) and duplexers from wireless technology group, Radio Frequency Systems (RFS) offers a convenient and inexpensive means of overlaying universal mobile telecommunication services (UMTS) on existing second-generation (2G) in-building RF distribution systems.
 

“RFS has had the foresight to build in future-proofing in its 2G in-building RF coverage solutions--as a result, these are sufficiently broadband to support the simple overlay of new third-generation (3G) UMTS services,” said Peter Raabe, RFS Global Product Manager for Wireless Distributed Communications Systems. “In many cases though, the UMTS RF power levels may prove inadequate, due to the higher insertion losses of the 2G network cabling. The new RFS I-BDA2100 and I-DUX2G/3G combination is one of the first on the market to offer a cost-effective and simple means of overcoming this situation.”
 
The series comprises two band-specific UMTS bi-directional amplifiers (I-BDA-2100-1 and I-BDA2100-2), plus a broadband duplexer (I-DUX2G/3G-1). The new BDAs supply 35 dB nominal gain in RF downlink and uplink, and are provided in two output power ratings, 18 dBm and 9 dBm. Used in combination with the new duplexer, the bi-directional amplifiers may be used to support a ‘3G on 2G’ overlay on an existing broadband in-building system.
 
Both I-BDA-2100 models support the full UMTS band, and provide automatic gain control in accordance with the Third Generation Partnership Project’s (3GPP) specified UMTS requirements. Manual gain control is also provided for final system levelling. The unit’s 10-30Vdc power requirements can be realized ‘locally’ via the unit’s power port, or ‘remotely’ via the RF coaxial feeds, permitting the units to be cascaded in a wide range of combinations.
 
The I-DUX2G/3G-1 duplexer is uniquely broadband, with its 2G port supporting frequencies between 800 and 1880 MHz. It provides particularly low insertion loss at both the 2G and 3G ports, and comes complete with two separate on-board dc power input ports, allowing even greater flexibility in system power configuration.

External Links

RFS

The Open Base Station Architecture Initiative, (OBSAI) today announced the availability of base station specifications covering the mechanics and functionality aspects of key modules, to complement the existing OBSAI interface specifications for the subsystem areas of Transport, Baseband and Control. This latest announcement means that the OBSAI members now have a complete suite of both interface and hardware specifications that will enable the production of base station modules to fit any OBSAI compliant base station - thereby widening the customer base of many OBSAI members. The 100 member strong group has also completed a power system interface.

Peter Kenington, OBSAI Technical Work Group Chairperson said, "It has been one of OBSAI’s goals to work towards an open market for base station modules, where genuine interoperability and interchangeability at the base station sub system level can take place. This will bring benefits to many players in our industry - from module and component vendors, who will be able to re-deploy R&D resources more effectively, to operators who will eventually realise a reduced spares inventory. It will soon be realistic to base a BTS module procurement specification almost entirely on the appropriate OBSAI specifications, plus the relevant air interface standard. This is a unique benefit of OBSAI."

Jukka Klemettila, OBSAI Chairperson, said: "We are very pleased with the progress of OBSAI. OBSAI compatible components and modules are now available on the market as previously promised. In addition to the module specifications, OBSAI has also just completed work on the power interface specification that defines communication interfaces between power systems and existing OBSAI modules."

These new specifications will enhance speed to market, reduce the cost of BTS systems and allow BTS sub-system vendors to focus engineering resources towards creating greater innovation in all areas of BTS engineering.

OBSAI is also currently ensuring compatibility with newer air interfaces, such as TD-SCDMA and WiMax

OBSAI previously announced the availability of internal interface specifications and the System Reference Document, for the Transport, Control, Baseband, and Radio modules in October 2003. One of the benefits of these specifications is that they are air interface agnostic and are compatible with WCDMA, CDMA and GSM/Edge base stations.

External Links

OBSAI

Provides data access for enterprise customers

As demand for "on the road access" to corporate data grows, PeopleSoft is advancing its mobile strategy by adopting Intellisync's Mobile Suite platform to enable access to business information in PeopleSoft applications anywhere, anytime and through any device for its enterprise customers.

Intellisync Corporation, a leading provider of synchronization and mobilization solutions, today announced that it has been selected by PeopleSoft, Inc. to enhance its portfolio of mobility solutions. PeopleSoft, the world's second largest provider of enterprise application software, will license the Intellisync® Mobile Suite to provide additional PeopleSoft laptop/tablet PC solutions around the world.

"Increased mobility and higher demands for customer responsiveness have created a mission-critical need for anywhere, anytime access to information," said Dean Alms, vice president, product management, PeopleSoft Tools & Technology. "Intellisync helps us meet the evolving user and business process demands of a complete mobile solution."

The award-winning Intellisync Mobile Suite platform provides both wired and wireless access to business data. The platform's scalable, high-performance Data Sync engine extends custom data residing in PeopleSoft to mobile workers' laptop PCs, when and where they need it. Intellisync's technology also enables desktop-based and server-to-server synchronization of contacts, calendars and tasks between PeopleSoft's enterprise applications and Microsoft Exchange and Lotus Domino groupware.

"We are very pleased to be selected by PeopleSoft to enhance their mobility platform and ensure that PeopleSoft users have universal access to their enterprise information," explained Woodson (Woody) Hobbs, president and chief executive officer of Intellisync. "Our relationship will extend Intellisync into both the PeopleSoft Enterprise and PeopleSoft EnterpriseOne product families. PeopleSoft is one of the most innovative enterprise application providers in the world. The level of sophistication, scale and functionality required by such an industry leader is extremely high, and we are delighted that Intellisync was selected above all other potential solutions. We believe this agreement represents a cornerstone in the creation of a complete mobility environment for PeopleSoft users around the world."

External Links

Intellisync

United Clearing PLC is pleased to announce that it been awarded an additional contract to clear O2 Germany’s new 3G international roaming traffic. In addition to this new agreement, O2 Germany have also extended their existing 2G contract, valuing the combined services at approximately Euro 300,000 over the next 24 months.

Mr. Daniel Nagler, Director of Sales at United Clearing commented; “We are delighted to provide additional 3G clearing services to O2. United Clearing is proud of O2’s continued confidence in our ability to deliver quality services that will provide O2 with cost and resource savings and deliver a professional and efficient settlement service for their international roaming partners and clients. We look forward to continuing to deliver O2 our usual high quality of service and attention.

Dr. Dirk Schmelzer, Vice President of International Carrier Services, O2 Germany,  said; "Since joining the United Clearing program in August 2003, we have been very impressed and pleased with their performance. United Clearing skill and expertise has had a significant and positive impact on O2 Germany roaming business. We felt that United Clearing was the natural choice to manage this new service and we are delighted that they will be bringing the same level of care and attention to detail to the management of our new 3G roaming traffic.”

The European Computer Telecoms Group (ECT), Europe's market leader for intelligent value-added services, has provided a turnkey solution for ring back tone service to the Tele2 Group, Europe's leading alternative telecommunications supplier of fixed-line and mobile telephony solutions.

ECT thus brings its new solution to Scandinavia after successful implementations in Germany and China.

In a competitive bidding process, ECT was recently awarded the contract for Tele2's new product, Ringuppsignaler. With its extensive experience in ring back tone projects, ECT was able to provide Tele2 customised user and network interfaces with the shortest possible time-to-market and highest possible cost-efficiency.

"I am pleased that our long-time partner, the Tele2 Group, has now also joined the ranks of major mobile operators utilizing our solution for ring back tone service," said Dr. Marshall E. Kavesh, the ECT Group's CEO.

External Links

ECT
Comviq

InphoMatch and Mobileway, the leading providers of global mobile messaging interoperability and value-added wireless data services, today announced a merger of their companies.

By uniting InphoMatch's mobile carrier business with Mobileway's wireless marketing and entertainment services, the combined entity occupies a unique position at the core of the mobile industry. InphoMatch CEO Neville Street has been named president and chief executive officer of the newly-formed entity. The company will complete a re-branding process and unveil a new name and corporate identity in the fall.

This union pairs InphoMatch's global, carrier-grade, messaging interoperability network with Mobileway's worldwide connectivity, content delivery, and settlement capabilities. The merger results in unrivalled carrier coverage, outstanding quality of service, and market-leading technology backed by a solid financial foundation. Both companies have proven experience in the mobile message delivery space, and have worked with many global brands to execute mobile marketing events around the world.

The company will be headquartered in Chantilly, Virginia, USA, with offices in San Francisco, London, Paris, Hong Kong, Taiwan, China, Singapore, Australia, Malaysia, Hamburg, Madrid, São Paulo, and Milan. The new company has more than 200 employees worldwide.

"As mobile messaging grows in volume and complexity, the industry needs a proven leader who can offer global reach and an outstanding quality of service," said Street. "The combination of Mobileway and InphoMatch creates the global footprint our customers and prospects need, as well as carrier-grade connectivity and the ability to extend their brands and content to wireless devices. Because the two companies have virtually no overlap in terms of geography or scope, we are confident that this integration will be seamless to both existing customers and potential prospects."

Merging InphoMatch and Mobileway creates a company with comprehensive worldwide mobile coverage. InphoMatch, delivering over one billion messages each month, currently has more than 80 carrier contracts; a leading WNP solution; a high-volume interoperability transport platform with real-time reporting functionality; and an integrated, Web-based, carrier-focused Storefront platform for content delivery and management. Mobileway has more than 150 carrier connections; deep premium SMS integrations; a distributed SS7/SMPP platform; a content adaptation management platform; and an integrated billing platform. The combined company provides customers with the best of both companies-without the need to reinvent technologies, tools, or teams.

Street concluded, "The new company brings together a management team comprised of the industry's most seasoned minds, tremendously innovative technologies, and the financial resources necessary to ensure the success of this merger."

External Links

InphoMatch
MobileWay

Si.mobil, today announces the appointment of a new CEO, Zoran Thaler. He is replacing Bojan Dremelj who after nine successful years will stay on as a member of Si.mobil’s Supervisory board.

Zoran Thaler has extensive experience in telecommunications, especially in consultancy and international relations. He has also been active in Slovenian politics for many years, having served two Governments as Minister of Foreign Affairs and Deputy to the Parliament. Since Zoran left politics in mid 1997 he has been focusing on international consultancy projects, advising foreign investors on Slovenia and the region.

From now on, Si.mobil will therefore be headed by Zoran Thaler as CEO and Andreas Maierhofer, who continues as COO. Zoran Thaler stressed: “My goal is to enhance the growth of Slovenia’s second largest mobile operator within a very challenging market environment. We will devote concerted efforts to actively supporting and promoting competition-friendly market conditions.”

Under Bojan Dremelj Si.mobil developed into an important player in the Slovenian telecommunications market. Si.mobil became part of the mobilkom austria group and signed a strategic partnership agreement with Vodafone. The last year has marked many successes at Si.mobil, such as entering into the third generation of mobile telecommunications, introducing a new tariff system and launching Vodafone live!, the leading mobile life style service for residential customers.

External Links

Telekom Austria

The NEC e228 video mobile is exclusively available on the 3 network with 3’s great value pay-as-you-go tariff, ThreePay. The NEC e228 is NEC’s sixth addition to 3’s handset portfolio and is now on sale in over 7,000 outlets across the UK.

The NEC e228 is designed to a high specification in performance, size and style and offers 3’s exciting video services, including person-to-person video calling, at unbeatable value.
 
The bar-design measures 129x53x21.5mm and weighs just 125g. It has two high-resolution cameras and a powerful speakerphone for hands-free video and voice-calling. It also has a high quality, 65,536 full-colour screen which is great for watching 3’s full-length music videos from BMG and football action from the Barclays Premiership.
 
The handset also offers email, an MP3 player, 19MB of internal memory and a memory card slot for a Sony MemoryStickTM Duo to store an extra 128MB of content. Additional features include vibrate alert, calendar function, calculator with currency converter and headset.
 
Gareth Jones, COO, 3 commented: “3 is shaking up the status quo in the UK mobile market by offering great value video mobiles and exciting mobile content. 3 is redefining what customers can expect to get for their money. It’s no surprise that the predecessor to the NEC e228 has been the UK’s best-selling pre-pay handset*. We expect the NEC e228, with its slimline design and high resolution camera, to be just as popular.”
 
Tony Hutson, Director, NEC UK said: “As the excellence of 3’s 3G experience gains increased traction in the UK, so its products and services continue to appeal to a wider and wider audience. We have been committed to working with 3 to ensure that its portfolio of handsets meets and exceeds customer demands for performance and functionality, and the launch of the e228 is the latest step in bringing the benefits of 3G to more mobile users than ever before – delivering an affordable and accessible device.”
 
ThreePay, 3’s ground-breaking pay-as-you-go tariff, offers pre-pay customers the same great value as contract tariffs. ThreePay video mobiles like the NEC e228 can be purchased in stores such as Argos, Superdrug and other high-street names like Carphone Warehouse and Phones4U. Top-up vouchers can be purchased in over 60,000 outlets, wherever you see the industry “top-up” sign.

External Links

3 UK
NEC