Ericsson has been working with Finnish mobile operator Elisa on piloting a private 4G network, which the operator could sell onto its enterprise customers in the future.

5G’s success is tied to the speed, reliability and capacity of the other networks it will complement and augment, including 4G, but most especially fibre. Almost half of the respondents who work for operators said sufficient fibre is the top critical factor for 5G’s success.

The complementary technologies of network functions virtualisation (NFV) and software-defined networks (SDN) have made slower progress than was hoped. 

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